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Nepal History

Prehistory

Surrounded by India and Tibet, Nepal has been isolated but also a connecting link for trade across the Himalayas. That Nepal had an early settlement is evident from the finds of stone implements. Historically, the Liccha Empire is from the 400th to the 700s.

History of Nepal

History

Nepal, until 2008 the world's only Hindu kingdom, was divided into many small princely states until the mid-18th century, where the dynasties had both Tibetan, Buddhist, and Indian, Hindu, spitefuls. In the 1380s, Jaya Sthiti seized power in the Mall. His reign meant political and social consolidation. Newark culture flourished. Many of Nepal's palaces and temples were built in the 17th century. The Mallad dynasty dominated the Kathmandu Valley until 1768, but the country was long divided into four princes, which in 1768-69 became an easy prey for cucumber conquerors. See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Nepal.

Gurkhas were war caste Hindus from India. Prithvi Narayan Shah, ancestor of the reigning Shah dynasty in Nepal, united the country into a unity, and Nepal gained its present limits during his reign (1742-75). His foreign policy was anti-Chinese and anti-British, but continued Nepali conquest attempts were halted by defeats against both China (1788-92) and the British (1814-15). A British envoy was stationed in Kathmandu, and Nepal was indebted to China for a long time. Domestic political conflicts prevailed between the royal family and high-caste families. In 1846, Jang Bahadur seized power, adopted the family name Rana and made the Prime Minister's office hereditary within his family. From 1846 to 1951, the kings lacked all real power. Jang Bahadur Rana centralized power and initiated reforms, among others. within the judiciary. In 1850 he visited Britain, became convinced of the British military and industrial superiority and initiated a pro-British policy. The British received military support from Nepal and began recruiting Cucumber soldiers.

Dissatisfaction in the country grew during the 20th century. The British retreat, India's independence in 1947 and the Communists' power in China in 1949 shook the Rana family. Domestic politics had great instability, and King Tribhuvan fled to India for a short time. Until the 1950s, the family tried to keep Nepal isolated from the rest of the world.

In 1950, Nepal's Congress Party was formed, and in 1959 the country got its first democratic constitution and parliamentary government. However, democracy was short-lived. Already in 1960, King Mahendra dissolved the parliament and banned the political parties. The modernization of the tradition-heavy and isolated country continued anyway. In 1962, the powerful king introduced a party-less system of elected councils (panchayat) at the bottom and an indirectly elected parliament. King Mahendra was succeeded in 1972 by his son Birendra Bar Bikram Shah Deb. After widespread unrest, the king in 1980 ordered a referendum, which provided a 55% majority for continued panchayat rule. He also amended the constitution so that Parliament received a majority of directly elected members. However, power remained with the king and the government appointed by him.

In the 1980s, the strikes and demonstrations intensified against the rule of the royal house and the dominant high-caste families - despite the fact that the king was still perceived by many Nepalese as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. The newly formed democracy movement was brutally fought, but the rulers eventually gave way: a new constitution was adopted in 1990, the panchayat system was abolished, the kingdom turned into a constitutional monarchy, where the king is head of state without political power, and parties were allowed for the first time in 30 years. The 1991 parliamentary elections resulted in successes for the Congress party, which formed the government, and the communists. However, the new government's reluctance to radical reform led to unrest in the community and tearing down the Congress party. After the 1994 election, a communist party was formed to form a government, but this also failed to live up to the high expectations of the population for improved living conditions. More weak and short-lived governments followed, often unshakable coalitions between radical and conservative parties.

The increasingly widespread disappointment over the shortcomings of democracy was exploited by the Maoist Communist Party in 1996 to launch an armed revolt to overthrow the monarchy and establish a communist "people's republic". The uprising began in isolated districts of western Nepal, but soon spread to large parts of the country. An increasing part of the state budget was spent on defense, and the conflict began to be likened to civil war. Human rights were increasingly violated by stricter security laws, which in themselves spurred opposition to the regime. In 2001, King Birendra was murdered by his son Dipendra. Queen Aishwarya and eight other members of the royal family were also shot to death by the temporarily confused Crown Prince, who then took his own life. Birendra's brother Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deb was appointed new king who immediately took a more active part in politics than Birendra did after the abolition of the one-world. A new government established a ceasefire with the Maoist guerrillas and initiated peace talks. However, these became unsuccessful, and the fighting resumed after a few months. In 2002, the king set aside the democratic system and took on the executive power, invoking the inability of politicians to put an end to the war. His takeover was followed by mass arrests of politicians, journalists and intellectuals. In 2002, the king set aside the democratic system and took on the executive power, invoking the inability of politicians to put an end to the war. His takeover was followed by mass arrests of politicians, journalists and intellectuals. In 2002, the king set aside the democratic system and took on the executive power, invoking the inability of politicians to put an end to the war. His takeover was followed by mass arrests of politicians, journalists and intellectuals.

The harsher social climate meant that support for the armed insurgency was increasing among the population, and the established parties entered into a loose political cooperation with the guerrillas. When Gyanendra was pressured to reinstate Parliament in 2006, he quickly removed all political influence and the following year also the formal role of head of state. The Maoists were included in a unifying government in 2007 and after general elections to a constitutional assembly in 2008, Nepal was declared a republic. The country's first president was elected Ram Baran Yadav (born 1948), a former health minister representing the center-focused Nepalese Congress Party. Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal (born 1954)), better known by the guerrilla name Prachanda, formed a coalition government in August 2008. Already in May 2009, however, the Maoists left the government after disagreement with the president and the army leadership, among other things. the incorporation of former guerrillas into the army. A broad but fragile coalition government took over, and political tension increased again.

In foreign policy, Nepal tries to balance the powerful neighbors China and India. Nepal has gradually developed closer contacts with China. Oppositions to India were temporarily sharpened in 1989-90 in connection with an Indian trade boycott, led by, among other things, a planned Nepalese arms import from China. In 1996, however, an agreement on river regulation and power plants was signed with India. With Bhutan, Nepal has faced contradictions regarding emigration and refugees. Nepal for a neutral and alliance-free foreign policy. The UN and the Alliance-Free Movement.

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